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US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

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Global trade has been increasingly vilified over the past five years from the global leaders to the distant emerging markets. This criticism comes with many unflattering labels: from isolationism to protectionism to nationalism. All are either direct result or inevitable consequence of the same preoccupying belief that trade is in some way undermining the health of an individual economy to benefit the many.

Yet, history does not bear out this scourge. While there are certainly periods of adjustment and bouts of economic underperformance depending on the cycles and political circumstance, the long-term trend marches tenaciously towards collective growth.

Trade War & Events 1900 – Present

US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

In this report, we look at some of the key events that have promoted and stymying global trade from 1900 to the latest US China Trade War. From World Wars to multi-national trade deals to financial crises, the world winds its way towards an inevitable, shared expansion. The favorable winds can be measured in the amount of total exports recorded, the strength of global growth and the value of its combined financial assets.

Below, we break this wide range of history into four unique periods. The more recent the period the shorter the spans covered as the ultimate influence of the events in this period are still uncertain. We split this total period into periods of 1900 to 1950; 1951 to 1900; 1991 to 2007; and 2008 to present (2018).

Trade War & Events 1900 – 1950

US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

History 1900 to 1950: The first half of the 20th century was one of destruction and rebirth. Two world wars were waged with a ‘Great Depression’ in between. After the economic blight, however, efforts to forge trade pacts in order to avoid future global wars helped catalyze trade to levels previously unexperienced.

Trade War & Events 1951 – 1990

US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

History 1951 to 1990: Following a period of exceptional growth in recovery, an enormous rift was opened in political creeds translating into an exceptional burden on growth. The Cold War pit communism versus a capitalist democracy. Through this long standoff, a number of trade disputes arose by those directly participating in the ‘cold’ engagement and those attempting to remain neutral. Yet, through this same period, critical relationships started to emerge include the seeding for the European Single Market, the US-Canada Free Trade Agreement and a return of Chinese-Japanese diplomatic relations.

Trade War & Events 1991 – 2007

US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

History 1991 to 2007: Through the 1990’s and the bulk of the 2000’s, growth accelerated sharply. In the aftermath of the Cold War, relationships improved rapidly. The foundations of the European Union solidified, a number of colonial territories were returned to their previous ownership and discrete economic and financial booms arose (like the Dot-com and Housing events leading up to 2000 and 2006 peaks). That rapid growth would also generate volatility and acute financial problems with Asian, Dot-com and Great Financial crises unfolding.

Trade War & Events 2008 – US China Trade War

US China Trade War & a Brief History of Trade Wars – 1900 until Present

History 2008 to Present (2018): Starting off this period with the most painful and wide spread financial and economic crisis since the Great Depression, ruptures would form in relationships but so too would global central banks collaborate in order to fend off an unchecked destruction of the world’s foundations. It is through this most recent period interestingly enough that we find a phase of impressive growth prompt explicit periods of protectionism as economies fight to accelerate their moderate but respectable growth at the expense of trade relationships.

Conclusions

For the better part of the last century, efforts have been made globally to liberalize trade in favor of strong economic growth. While progress has come in uneven fits and spurts, growth has indeed come. But the cost of said economic progress may be beginning to show, with several of the globe’s major trade relationships (NAFTA, TPP, and even the European Union itself) coming under direct fire and questions about their longevity.

The latest bout, the US China trade war, may ultimately prove to be another stepping stone on the path to deeper global trade integration that’s been the driving force for developed and developing economies alike since World War II. But a period of discomfort may be in the immediate future; even history shows that the path to trade liberalization hasn’t been a straight line.

— Compiled by John Kicklighter, Chief Strategist, Renee Mu, Currency Analyst, Ilya Spivak, Senior Currency Strategist, and Christopher Vecchio, CFA, Senior Currency Strategist



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EURUSD Elliott Wave from February 2018 Concludes

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EURUSD Elliott Wave at high probability the bottom is in

We began building our short EURUSD position in two separate occasions from April 10 at 1.2350 and April 26 at 1.2153 in anticipation of a developing bearish impulse wave. Though our first target of 1.1554 was hit on May 29, the bearish impulse wave appeared incomplete. As of May 29, we could count three of the five Elliott Wave impulse waves lower, which implied a fourth wave correction and fifth wave sell off still to come.

EURUSD bearish impulse wave concludes with elliott wave labels shown.

On August 6, we closed down half of the position (booking +791 pips) and tightened the stop loss on the remaining short EURUSD to 1.1750. We are now going to tighten the stop loss further as evidence is growing the bearish impulse wave from February 2018 has ended or is about to end with one more dip. Therefore, we are moving the stop loss on the remaining short EURUSD position to the August 6 low of 1.1530.

If EURUSD pops above 1.1530, then we will gladly book the remaining profits and head to the sidelines as EURUSD may be in the beginning stages of a multi-month rally that may drive to 1.17-1.22.

Elliott Wave Theory FAQ

What Elliott Wave is EURUSD in right now?

Our analysis points to a bearish impulse wave ending from February 2018 to August 15, 2018. This bearish impulse wave is likely wave 1 of a larger bearish impulse wave or wave A of a larger zigzag wave.

Our beginner and advanced Elliott Wave guides share with you typical waveforms and structure that include tips on how to trade with the waves.

Why do traders lose money?

Regardless of the style of analysis, many traders do lose money because they do not take the time to study the market and the effect of leverage. At DailyFX, we have studied millions of live trades and boiled our study down into a Traits of Successful Traders guide. You will find how leverage and human nature affects our trading so you can implement tactics like ones described in the trading idea above.

New to FX trading? We created this guide just for you.

—Written by Jeremy Wagner, CEWA-M

Jeremy Wagner is a Certified Elliott Wave Analyst with a Master’s designation. Jeremy provides Elliott Wave analysis on key markets as well as Elliott Wave educational resources. Read more of Jeremy’s Elliott Wave reports via his bio page.

Communicate with Jeremy and have your shout below by posting in the comments area. Feel free to include your Elliott Wave count as well.

Discuss this market with Jeremy in Monday’s US Opening Bell webinar.

Follow on twitter @JWagnerFXTrader .



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Australian Dollar May Get Some Respite If Only For Lack Of News

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AUDUSD

Fundamental Australian Dollar Forecast: Neutral

AUD Talking Points

  • The Australian Dollar remains in a pervasive downtrend against its US cousin
  • Interest rate differentials and twitchy risk appetite will probably ensure it stays ther
  • But this week could offer some pause

Find out what retail foreign exchange traders make of the Australian Dollar’s prospects right now, in real time, at the DailyFX Sentiment Page

The Australian Dollar faces multiple sources of downward pressure but the coming week’s light economic data schedule may offer it some probably temporary reprieve.

The widening interest rate differential in favor of the US Dollar does not appear to be going anywhere soon. Reserve Bank of Australia Governor Phillip Lowe testified before Parliament last week that, although the RBA still thinks the next move, when it comes, will be a rise, there’s no near-term case for any such move.

Indeed local futures markets do not now price in any change to the record-low, 1.50% Official Cash Rate until at least the start of 2020.

But the Aussie’s worries go a little deeper than simple rate comparisons. Risk aversion sparked first by global trade worries and then by thy collapse of the Turkish Lira has also weighed on the growth-linked currency. Morever, signs that the best of China’s growth for the year may now be behind us have also done it no favours. Official industrial production and capital investment data out of China missed forecasts significantly last week. They were also the first look at figures for July, and suggested that 2018’s second half may well be tougher than its first, with or without a trade settlement between Washington and Beijing.

So, given all of the above the Australian Dollar backdrop looks just about as gloomy as ever, especially as the markets also suspect that the RBA doesn’t mind its weakness at all given how often it talks about a weaker currency making growth and inflation goals easier to hit.

But the week doesn’t offer much in the way of Australian economic numbers. We will get the minutes of the last RBA monetary policy meeting. However, seeing as investors heard from the governor himself only a few days ago, scope for big moves on the minutes would seem very limited.

Make no mistake, the Australian Dollar is still biased lower against its US big brother, but it has been hit fairly hard in the last couple of weeks. The coming sessions could offer some breathing space and consolidation so it’s a neutral call.

AUDUSD

Resources for Traders

Whether you’re new to trading or an old hand DailyFX has plenty of resources to help you. There’s our trading sentiment indicator which shows you live how IG clients are positioned right now. We also hold educational and analytical webinars and offer trading guides, with one specifically aimed at those new to foreign exchange markets. There’s also a Bitcoin guide. Be sure to make the most of them all. They were written by our seasoned trading experts and they’re all free.

— Written by David Cottle, DailyFX Research

Follow David on Twitter@DavidCottleFX or use the Comments section below to get in touch!



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Chinese Yuan, Hong Kong Dollar Eye on Central Banks’ Defense At Key Levels

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USD/CNH chart

FUNDAMENTAL FORECAST FOR CNH: Neutral

How to trade news? Learn with DailyFX Free Trading Guides!

  • PBOC stepped in twice when the USD/CNH broke above 6.90, a key threshold below 7.0.
  • US-China Trade war and weak Chinese fundamentals add difficulties to support the Yuan.
  • USD/HKD touched the lower limit of 7.85, a level that HKMA will continue to defend.

The offshore Chinese Yuan gained against the U.S. Dollar this week after nine consecutive losses, amid the PBOC’s further intervention to defend the Yuan. Overall, the Chinese currency rose against seven of the G10 currencies, except the CAD, JPY and NZD. The Hong Kong Dollar, used in one of China’s autonomous territories, touched the lower band of its pegged currency regime and triggered local monetary authority’s intervention. Looking forward, both currencies will continue to eye on policymakers for support, amid both internal and external pressure.

PBOC Watches USD/CNH’s Key Levels of 6.9 & 7.0

China’s Central Bank shut down channels for commercial banks to deposit or lend the Yuan to the offshore market through the free trade zone scheme, after the USD/CNH jumped above 6.90 on Wednesday. This basically tightened the offshore Yuan liquidity and increased the cost of Yuan short. Following the move, the USD/CNH fell back below 6.90.

USD/CNH 1-Week

Chinese Yuan, Hong Kong Dollar Eye on Central Banks' Defense At Key Levels

Two weeks, the PBOC hiked the reserve requirement ratio on FX forwards last week, after the USD/CNH hit above 6.90 for the first time in 15 months. Breaking above this level could spark further selling sentiment, as it approaches the record low level of 6.9865 for the Yuan. In addition, it leaves little buffer area before the rate can touch the critical psychological level of 7.0. The last time the Yuan at 7.0 was more than 10 years ago, even before the offshore Yuan exchange rate regime was introduced.

The PBOC has clearly stated in the Q2 report that it will counter against the excessive selling in the Yuan driven by sentiment. Coupled with resumed plunges in Chinese equities seen this week (Shanghai Composite Index dipped to 17-month low), calming markets will be one of the policymaker’s top priorities next week. Besides the above two uncommon measures, the regulator issues the daily reference rate, which has been held below 6.90 as well.

Challenges to Defend the Yuan

Uncertainties around the US-China trade war remain. The two parties will resume negotiations in late August but both have become cautious, with only Vice Ministers attending the meetings; this is downgraded from Minister-level-and-above meetings seen in April and May, when the two sides failed to reach a consensus. At the same time, the tit-for-tat attacks are underway: US tariffs on $16 billion Chinese goods, the second batch of a total $50 billion, will enter effect on August 23; China’s retaliation on the same amount of US goods will follow immediately. The uneased tensions in trade could dampen market sentiment in the Yuan.

China’s fundamentals are less likely to help much either. The July Retail Sales and Industrial Production both dropped from the last month and below expectations, hinting weak consumption and production. In addition, Fixed Assets Investment, which is considered to expand at around the same rate of GDP, set a new record-low of 5.5% in July. Besides the domestic difficulties, the contagion of high volatility in emerging-market currencies seen recently has the Yuan at risk as well.

HKMA Eyes on USD/HKD’s Key Level of 7.85

The USD/HKD touched 7.85, the lower limit for the Hong Kong Dollar’s trading band under the current pegged exchange rate regime. In order to maintain the regime, Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), which serves as an independent central bank in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, purchased a total of HK$16.8 billion during three consecutive days from August 14. This is equivalent to sell US$2.1 billion to the market.

Read More: A Tale of Two Currencies: Hong Kong Dollar and Chinese Yuan

The recent plunge in emerging market currencies was a trigger to the Hong Kong Dollar’s weakness this week. Yet, the main contributor was the widened interest rate spread between the HKD and USD. Since the U.S. Fed began to increase rate in late March, the pressure on the Hong Kong Dollar has become intensified.

USD/HKD 1-Week

Chinese Yuan, Hong Kong Dollar Eye on Central Banks' Defense At Key Levels

On April 12, the USD/HKD hit 7.85 for the first time in 35 years. This triggered HKMA’s intervention for the first time since HKD’s trading band of 7.75 to 7.85 was set in 2005. Since then, the monetary authority has stepped in 18 times and purchased a total of HK$87.1 billion (US$11.1 billion) from the market. This cost about 2% of Hong Kong’s foreign reserves (US$424.3 billion, according to the July figure).

Next week, with the Jackson Hole meeting and FOMC minutes underway, the Hong Kong Dollar will likely continue to bear downward pressure, which means HKMA will need to continue to sell the USD and purchase the HKD to maintain the pegged exchange rate regime.

— Written by Renee Mu, Currency Analyst with DailyFX



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